Explico was retained to conduct a collision severity and biomechanical analyses on the rear-end collision. As a part of the analysis, our team of experts evaluated the collision to determine if the mechanisms known to cause, or contribute to, disc herniations were present during the collision. The first part of the investigation involved determining the severity of the collision experienced by the plaintiff's vehicle as well as conducting an analysis of the airbag control module in the defendant's vehicle. Explico inspected the location of the incident using a laser scan to capture the 3D geometry of the roadway and used a physics-based simulation program to evaluate the dynamics of the plaintiff's vehicle during the rear-end event. Next, an evaluation of the forces and motions experienced by the plaintiff during the rear-end collision were performed. A subject-specific MADYMO simulation along with an analysis of crash test data was conducted to evaluate the forces and motions experienced specifically by the plaintiff during the low-speed, rear-end collision.