Individuals interact with their smartphones throughout the day, regardless of the activity they are performing (e.g., dining in restaurants, walking, having a conversation, shopping, or driving).
In the US, phone calls are no longer a preferred method of communication. Individuals nowadays prefer to communicate via text messages. The use of mobile instant messaging applications (e.g., WhatsApp, Messenger, iMessage, Viber) rather than messaging services from cellular service providers have become very popular among users, far outpacing the use of more traditional text messaging. Although, the global usage of these modes of communication may not be considered as often as traditional voice and text message phone records when assessing accident causation due to potential driver distraction from phone usage.