Kinetic and kinematic data collected from controlled low-speed rear-end crash tests are typically limited to normally seated volunteers, cadavers, and anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). Biomechanical analyses of occupants involved in real-world accidents, however, frequently involve out-of-position occupants.
The geometry of the subject driver compartment and an occupant in a normally seated position (upright and face-forward) and an out-of-position configuration (upright with axial rotation of neck/trunk to the left or right) was imaged using a Faro Focus 3D laser scanner. The collision pulse based on the collision reconstruction was applied, and linear head acceleration and cervical spine compression were recorded and compared between each seating position in MADYMO.
The subject-specific seating positions were accurately captured and reconstructed in the MADYMO environment. Occupant kinematics between the two seating positions were grossly consistent with each other, and with kinematics previously demonstrated in normally seated volunteer, cadaver, and ATD tests. Axial rotation of the head/trunk during low speed rear-end impacts did not appreciably affect peak cervical compression or linear head acceleration compared to a normal seating position.