Engineers at Explico have pored through numerous crash tests in order to characterize the loading of the lower extremities during moderate-to-severe rear-end collision scenarios. The results of this research was published through the Society of Automotive Engineers.
Rundell SA, Weaver BT, Guiang A. Characterization of Occupant Lower Extremity Behavior During Moderate-to-High Speed Rear Impacts. Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE #2013-01-0222, January 2013